Explore the Latest Functional Potency Assays for Cancer Immunotherapy Research

Second Edition Now Available

Download the second edition of the Cancer Immunotherapy Handbook to learn how real-time cell assays can generate more reliable results in vitro.  

To gain a more complete and nuanced view of cancer cell killing, the xCELLigence® Real Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) assay captures dynamic cell behavior that is missed by more labor intensive endpoint methods. 

The second edition of the Cancer Immunotherapy handbook includes new examples and figures from peer reviewed articles, and updated publication lists.Download the handbook to learn more.




Applications in the Cancer & Immunotherapy Handbook include:

  • Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytolysis (ADCC)
  • Bispecific T Cell Engagers (BiTEs) and Bispecific Antibodies
  • Checkpoint Inhibitors
  • Combination Therapy
  • Genetically Engineered T Cell-Mediated Cell Killing
  • Oncolytic Viruses
  • T-Cell-Mediated Cytolysis
  • Liquid Tumor Killing


Is your current in vitro assay truly predictive of in vivo outcomes?

With xCELLigence® Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) instruments, immune cell killing assays are:

  • Label-Free: No 51Cr, no luciferase, no dyes…no problem
  • Simplified: Easier workflow consists of plating target cells, adding effector cells, and start reading
    • Read an entire 96-well plate in 15 seconds
    • Run up to 6 plates independently, with no scheduling conflicts
    • Monitor target cell killing continuously from seconds to days
  • Highly Sensitive: Monitor target cell killing at low, physiologically relevant effector:target ratios
  • Flexible: Diverse Effector Cells and Molecules include TIL, NK, CART, TCR, checkpoint inhibitors, BiTEs
  • Quantitative, Real-Time Kinetics: Highly accurate and highly reproducible 


Sample Data in this Handbook:

Figure 8. Impedance assessment of BiTE-mediated cytotoxicity. (A) Normalized CI plot for PC3 target cells incubated with PBMCs at different E:T ratios without the BiTE. (B) Same E:T ratios as (A) but with 1 μg/mL anti-EpCAM/CD3 BiTE. (C) At E:T ratio of 10:1, different BiTE concentrations resulted in varied dynamic cytolysis of the target cells. (D) Same result from (C) showed as %cytolysis. (E) Example of BiTE concentration depended %cytolysis from E:T ratio 10:1 and 1.25:1. (F) KT50 comparison for result from (E). Significance analysis performed by one-way ANOVA. (*** p< 0.001; ** p< 0.01; * p< 0.05; NS = Not Significant; N.D. = Not Detected).

This figure has been reproduced with permission from Cerignoli, F. et al. In vitro Immunotherapy Potency Assays Using Real-Time Cell Analysis. PLOS ONE 2018, 13(3), e0193498. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.